The answer is Oxygen.. so the name "oxidative phosphorelaton". glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport. 7 Parts: Mitochondrion. In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor (i.e., the one having the most positive redox potential) at the end of the ETC is an oxygen molecule (O2) that becomes reduced to water (H2O) by the final ETC carrier. Anaerobic fermentation occurs when no molecule is available to act as an electron acceptor at the electron transport chain. The reduction of certain inorganic compounds by anaerobic microbes is often ecologically significant. The final ETC complex used in aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted electrons to oxygen to form H2O is called ________. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Oxidative phosphorylation. The four major classes of electron carriers involved in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic electron transport systems are the cytochromes, flavoproteins, iron-sulfur proteins, and the quinones. This electron carrier, cytochrome oxidase, differs between bacterial types and can be used to differentiate closely related bacteria for diagnoses. Mitochondrial respiration is important for cell proliferation; however, the specific metabolic requirements fulfilled by respiration to support proliferation have not been defined. For the electron transport chain to continue working, there must be a final electron acceptor. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Instead, molecules such as sulfate (SO 4 2-), nitrate (NO 3 –), or sulfur (S) are used as electron acceptors. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Enzymes that are useful in cellular respiration work with the redox coenzyme NAD+. The electron transport chain is the last stage of the respiration pathway and is the stage that produces the most ATP molecules. Explanation: In cellular respiration, oxygen is the final electron acceptor.Oxygen accepts the electrons after they have passed through the electron transport chain and ATPase, the enzyme responsible for creating high-energy ATP molecules. The higher energy yield is a consequence of the Krebs Cycle which completes the oxidation of glucose. A) water B) polar molecules C) molecules with high potential energy D) molecules with low potential energy E) molecules in … Trump supporters gather outside Marco Rubio's home Answer and Explanation: The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is oxygen. However, anaerobic respirers use altered ETS carriers encoded by their genomes, including distinct complexes for electron transfer to their final electron acceptors. The resulting end-products move into the mitochondria and go through a preparatory step to the Krebs cycle, and finally to the electron transport system. The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is _____. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Denitrification is the utilization of nitrate (NO3−) as the terminal electron acceptor. For O2 to form H2O, isn't there a transfer of electrons (coming from NADH&FADH2)? The passage of hydrogen ions through ________ down their electrochemical gradient harnesses the energy needed for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation. These electron transfers take place on the inner part of the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells or in specialized protein complexes in the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Anaerobic Respiration: Term. This method still incorporates the respiratory electron transport chain, but without using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Organisms performing anaerobic respiration use alternative electron transport system carriers for the ultimate transfer of electrons to the final non-oxygen electron acceptors. Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in cellular respiration? 4.5 CELLULAR RESPIRATION How Electron Transport Is Used to Trap Chemical Bond Energy Having seen that ATP is the one common energy denominator by which most cellular machines are powered, we must ask how this energy is captured from fuel substrates. Which of the following is not an electron carrier within an electron transport chain? This question directs us to an important generalization: all cells obtain their chemical energy requirements from … Paul Westphal, NBA Hall of Famer, dies at 70. These carriers can pass electrons along in the ETC because of their redox potential. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Each component of an ETC has a different redox potential, and electrons move from electron carriers with more negative redox potential to those with more positive redox potential. In cellular respiration, each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. If that acceptor is oxygen, the process is considered aerobic respiration. This question directs us to an important generalization: all cells obtain their chemical energy requirements from … Some unusual autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans, can use phosphite (HPO3–) as an electron donor. Respiration: Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transfer Chain. Both of these processes occur during cell metabolism. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Glucose passes through a series of catabolic reactions in the process of cellular respiration. Intro to redox in cellular respiration. Have questions or comments? However, applying the periodic trends, fluorine is more electronegative than oxygen, and the noble gas neon even more so than fluorine. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is an oxygen molecule, O 2.If aerobic respiration occurs, then ATP will be produced using the energy of high-energy electrons carried by NADH or FADH 2 to the electron transport chain. In aerobic organisms undergoing respiration, electrons are shuttled to an electron transport chain, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen. Substrate-level vs. oxidative phosphorylation. a) glucose b) fadh2 c) fad d) atp e) nadh f) nad+ needs extra stuck - e-eduanswers.com We have just discussed two pathways in glucose catabolism—glycolysis and the Krebs cycle—that generate ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation. At the end of the Electron Transport Chain, electrons need to exit the system so new electrons can enter and continue the proton pump action. In prokaryotic cells, H+ flows from the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, whereas in eukaryotic mitochondria, H+ flows from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. metallireducens) can use toxic hydrocarbons (e.g. asked Aug 23, 2015 in Biology & Microbiology by Paramedic. Anaerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is unavailable. Anaerobic respiration supports growth of E. coli cells under conditions when suitable electron donors (DH) and acceptors (A) are present. in this process, Glucose molecules are broken down into energy, carbon dioxide, and alcohol or lactic acid. Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2). During fermentation, energy stored in pyruvate is unavailable to the cell. Electron Transport Chain implies a group of electron transporters and systems that move from an electron donor to electron acceptors in the center of the mitochondrial membrane. Definition. What component of cellular respiration does not use oxygen as the final electron acceptor? Many different types of electron acceptors may be used for anaerobic respiration. Adopted a LibreTexts for your class? We hypothesize the activity of carcinogens as electron acceptors to disrupt the normal glycolysis cycle happening in a cell by acting as positive ligands. For various electron acceptors (O 2, nitrate) and donors (formate, H 2, NADH, … Aerobic respiration, a process that uses oxygen, and anaerobic respiration, a process that doesn't use oxygen, are two forms of cellular respiration. O2 + 4e- + 4H+ → 2H2O Many aerobically respiring bacteria, including E. coli, switch to using nitrate as a final electron acceptor and producing nitrite when oxygen levels have been depleted. during aerobic cellular respiration the final electron acceptor is Accueil / Non classé / ; during aerobic cellular respiration the final electron acceptor is The potential energy of this electrochemical gradient generated by the ETC causes the H+ to diffuse across a membrane (the plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells and the inner membrane in mitochondria in eukaryotic cells). Thus becoming the terminal electron acceptor. These chemical materials could be used in the anaerobic cellular respiration as electron acceptors. Anaerobic respiration is the formation of ATP without oxygen. We hypothesize the activity of carcinogens as electron acceptors to disrupt the normal glycolysis cycle happening in a cell by acting as positive ligands. Oxygen (O2), because of its highly electronegative nature, drives aerobic respiration by drawing electrons (e-) of the lowest energy from the electron transport chain, being reduced itself to water (H2O) in the reaction. Respiration breaks this fuel down, using oxygen and generating ATP. Ferric iron (Fe3+) is a widespread anaerobic terminal electron acceptor used by both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. As electrons are passed from NADH and FADH, The energy of this proton motive force can be harnessed by allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse back through the membrane by. toluene) as a carbon source, there is significant interest in using these organisms as bioremediation agents in ferric iron contaminated aquifers. Electron transport chain. What are the two sources of blood glucose? as fuel for cellular respiration. cytoplasm. The waste products of this type of respiration, carbon dioxide and ... donated electron. Organic compounds may also be used as electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. Most ATP generated during the cellular respiration of glucose is made by. Referencing this Article. The two types of hydrogen acceptors used in cellular respiration are NAD and FAD. This process is widespread, and used by many members of Proteobacteria. In each transfer of an electron through the ETC, the electron loses energy, but with some transfers, the energy is stored as potential energy by using it to pump hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane. Oxygen is eventually reduced by the electrons to form water Steps Of Cellular Respiration (1) Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first step in the chain of catabolic reactions the comprise the process of cellular respiration. Respiratory demands vary by type of fuel, by the balance between catabolism and anabolism in which a cell is engaged, and by the degree to which the cell produces cytosolic NADPH anaerobically. Animal muscle cells and yeast cells have adapted different methods to handle this 'shortage' in oxygen, which involve the processes of glycolysis and fermentation. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen can provide the required energy for metabolism, but the unique property of oxygen is that it is so unreactive at body temperature unless part of a catalyzed reaction. Cellular respiration is the process through which cells convert sugars into energy. Definition. HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter Outline 8.1 OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR ENERGY METABOLISM Coupled oxidation and reduction reactions produce the flow of electrons for energy metabolism Electrons flow from fuel substances to final electron acceptors In cellular respiration, cells make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation Cellular Respiration Definition. Both NAD+ and molecular oxygen serve as electron acceptors in cellular respiration. In prokaryotes, where are the electron transport chains located? Where do protons accumulate as a result of the ETS in each cell type. Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O 2).Although oxygen is not the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain. Overview of Final Electron Acceptor. All organisms that use aerobic cellular respiration have cytochrome oxidase. The electron transport chain is the last mechanism that occurs in the cellular respiration process. Cellular respiration is the process through which cells convert fuel into energy and nutrients. Glucose is destabilized so that it can be broken apart in phase 2. In cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is oxygen. Cellular respiration is the process through which cells convert sugars into energy. The cell lacks genes encoding enzymes to minimize the severely damaging effects of dangerous oxygen radicals produced during aerobic respiration, such as hydrogen peroxide (H. The cell lacks a sufficient amount of oxygen to carry out aerobic respiration. In anaerobic respiration, a molecule other than oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. How many electrons are in a hydrogen ion (H+)? In photosynthesis, the terminal electron acceptor is NADP+. These molecules have a lower reduction potential than oxygen; thus, less energy is formed per molecule of glucose in anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. During cellular respiration, the electron transported through the series of co-enzymes and cytochromes is accepted by oxygen and thus becomes the terminal acceptor of the electron. The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in oxidative phosphorylation is: oxygen. Aerobic Respiration: Term. Alcoholic fermentation involves the breakdown of carbohydrates to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide as byproducts. (credit: modification of work by Klaus Hoffmeier). Inorganic compounds include sulfate (SO. a. HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter Outline 8.1 OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR ENERGY METABOLISM Coupled oxidation and reduction reactions produce the flow of electrons for energy metabolism Electrons flow from fuel substances to final electron acceptors In cellular respiration, cells make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation First, glucose is split in the cytoplasm in the process of glycolysis. Because the ions involved are H+, a pH gradient is also established, with the side of the membrane having the higher concentration of H+ being more acidic. A cell also needs a complete Krebs cycle, an appropriate cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen detoxification enzymes to prevent the harmful effects of oxygen radicals produced during aerobic respiration. The oxygen molecule in aerobic respiration, acts as the final electron acceptor, resulting in the efficient production of ATP. Denitrifiers are important soil bacteria that use nitrate [latex]\left(\text{NO}_{3}^{-}\right)[/latex] and nitrite [latex]\left({\text{NO}}_{2}^{-}\right)[/latex] as final electron acceptors, producing nitrogen gas (N2). ... Anaerobic respiration or fermentation is of different types based on the electron acceptors and byproducts. What happens when glucose is phosphorylated during phase 1 of glycolysis? Do both aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration use an electron transport chain? Examples of electron acceptors include oxygen, nitrate, iron (III), manganese (IV), sulfate, carbon dioxide, or in some microorganisms the chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Instead, molecules such as sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3–), or sulfur (S) are used as electron acceptors. The electron transport chain has two essential functions in the cell: Regeneration of electron carriers: Reduced electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 pass their electrons to the chain, turning them back into NAD + and FAD. ATP synthase (like a combination of the intake and generator of a hydroelectric dam) is a complex protein that acts as a tiny generator, turning by the force of the H+ diffusing through the enzyme, down their electrochemical gradient from where there are many mutually repelling H+ to where there are fewer H+. The energy of the electrons is harvested to generate an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, which is used to make ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. The turning of the parts of this molecular machine regenerates ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) by oxidative phosphorylation, a second mechanism for making ATP that harvests the potential energy stored within an electrochemical gradient. Luckily, O 2 makes a perfect electron acceptor. Electron flow in these organisms is similar to those in electron transport, ending in oxygen or nitrate, except that in ferric iron-reducing organisms the final enzyme in this system is a ferric iron reductase. What kind of molecules serve as electron acceptors in cellular respiration? Figure1 The electron transport chain of a eukaryotic cell. This electron carrier, cytochrome oxidase, differs between bacterial types and can be used to differentiate closely related bacteria for diagnoses. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy because … In prokaryotes, which of the following is true? This electrochemical gradient formed by the accumulation of H+ (also known as a proton) on one side of the membrane compared with the other is referred to as the proton motive force (PMF). Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. As electrons are transferred through an ETC, H. Answer b. ATP synthase is not an electron carrier within an electron transport chain. Overall, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP made during the complete aerobic respiration of glucose is 38 molecules, with four being made by substrate-level phosphorylation and 34 being made by oxidative phosphorylation (Table 1). This method still incorporates the respiratory electron transport chain, but without using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. To create ATP and other forms of energy to power cellular reactions, cells require fuel and an electron acceptor which drives the chemical process of turning energy into a useable form. This method still incorporates the respiratory electron transport chain, but without using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Although oxygen is not the final electron acceptor, the process still uses a respiratory electron transport chain. To create ATP and other forms of energy to power cellular reactions, cells require fuel and an electron acceptor which drives the chemical process of … This function is vital because the oxidized forms are reused in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) during cellular respiration. What component of cellular respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor? ... Write and explain the overall equation for cellular respiration (Arrows indicate: cellular respiration is a series of chemical steps; not a single chemical reaction.) Microbes using anaerobic respiration commonly have an intact Krebs cycle, so these organisms can access the energy of the NADH and FADH2 molecules formed. The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is oxygen, according to McGraw Hill Education. Most ATP, however, is generated during a separate process called oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs during cellular respiration. In reality, the total ATP yield is usually less, ranging from one to 34 ATP molecules, depending on whether the cell is using aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration; in eukaryotic cells, some energy is expended to transport intermediates from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, affecting ATP yield. ATP synthase is a complex integral membrane protein through which H+ flows down an electrochemical gradient, providing the energy for ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation. These reactions are of interest not only because they allow organisms to obtain energy, but also because they are involved in the natural biodegradationof organic contaminants. The Electron Transport Chain Stage three of cellular respiration is the use of NADH and FADH 2 to generate ATP. This occurs in two parts. It accepts two electrons and a proton to produce NADH. Sulfate reduction uses sulfate (SO2−4) as the electron acceptor, producing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a metabolic end product. Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH2—made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration). Introduction to cellular respiration and redox. These comprise the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the reduction of fumarate to succinate, as well as the reduction of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to … NO3- or SO4- act as electron acceptors, in place of the oxygen. Electrons flow in cellular respiration precisely as they flow in other electrical circuits, toward acceptors of higher electron affinity. A molecule other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, pyruvate. oxygen. To carry out aerobic respiration, a cell requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor. It lacks Krebs cycle enzymes for processing acetyl-CoA to CO. Zero. Edited by Jamie (ScienceAid Editor), Taylor (ScienceAid Editor), Sharingknowledge, Jen Moreau and 1 other. NAD+. In aerobic respiration in mitochondria, the passage of electrons from one molecule of NADH generates enough proton motive force to make three ATP molecules by oxidative phosphorylation, whereas the passage of electrons from one molecule of FADH2 generates enough proton motive force to make only two ATP molecules. These include the reduction of fumarate to succinate, Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to trimethylamine (TMA), and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to Dimethyl sulfide (DMS). * anaerobic respiration is a type of cellular respiration that occurs when oxygen is not present. anaerobic cellular respiration has 3 different stages, and their final electron acceptors are: pyruvate oxidation- NAD+ Krebs cycle- NAD+, FAD+ electron transport chain- … In cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is oxygen. At the end of the ETC, we produce H2O (at complex IV) and ATP (at ATPase). These molecules have a lower reduction potential than oxygen; thus, less energy is … Since cancer has long been known to occur through gene regulation, an impaired cellular respiration without utilizing mitochondrial function has been an area of active interest. Cellular respiration yields 18 times more ATP per glucose molecule than does fermentation. Acetogenesis is a type of microbial metabolism that uses hydrogen (H2) as an electron donor and carbon dioxide (CO2) as an electron acceptor to produce acetate, the same electron donors and acceptors used in methanogenesis. Cellular respiration is essentially the same reaction as combustion, but the oxidation of glucose occurs in several controlled steps. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. To create ATP and other forms of energy that they can use to power their life functions, cells require fuel and an electron acceptor which drives the chemical process of turning energy from that fuel into a useable form. kate460 The electron transport chain is, in essence, aseries of redox reactions that conclude cellular respiration. These molecules have a lower reduction potential than oxygen. However, some types of organisms, including many types of bacteria and other microorganisms, can use different final electron acceptors. A cell might perform anaerobic respiration for which of the following reasons? Electron carriers. Where in the cell does glycolysis occur? How does the location of ATP synthase differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Cellular Respiration Definition. Nitrate, like oxygen, has a high reduction potential. This flow of hydrogen ions across the membrane, called chemiosmosis, must occur through a channel in the membrane via a membrane-bound enzyme complex called ATP synthase (Figure 2). Many denitrifying bacteria can also use ferric iron (Fe3+) and different organic electron acceptors. There is an uneven distribution of H+ across the membrane that establishes an electrochemical gradient because H+ ions are positively charged (electrical) and there is a higher concentration (chemical) on one side of the membrane. It lacks the transition reaction to convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Substance Y, the electron acceptor, is the oxidizing agent; it oxidizes Xe-by removing its electron. The tendency for movement in this way is much like water accumulated on one side of a dam, moving through the dam when opened. The final ETS complex used in aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted electrons to oxygen to form H, http://cnx.org/contents/e42bd376-624b-4c0f-972f-e0c57998e765@4.2, [latex]\text{Glucose}\left(6\text{C}\right)\longrightarrow{2}\text{ pyruvates}\left(2\text{C}\right)[/latex], [latex]2\text{ pyruvates}\left(3\text{C}\right)\longrightarrow{2}\text{acetyl}\left(2\text{C}\right)+2\text{CO}_2[/latex], [latex]2\text{ acetyl}\left(2\text{C}\right)\longrightarrow{4}\text{CO}_2[/latex], [latex]\text{glucose}\left(6\text{C}\right)\longrightarrow{6}\text{CO}_2[/latex], Compare and contrast the electron transport system location and function in a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell, Compare and contrast the differences between substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation, Explain the relationship between chemiosmosis and proton motive force, Describe the function and location of ATP synthase in a prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cell, Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration. First, the NADH and FADH 2 enter an electron transport chain, where their energy is used to pump, by active transport, protons (H +) into the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Legal. For a protein or chemical to accept electrons, it must have a more positive redox potential than the electron donor. Figure 2. NAD+ is regenerated throughout anaerobic fermentation. b. Overview of cellular respiration. Upon receiving two extra electrons, the oxygen molecules break apart. For example, the number of hydrogen ions that the electron transport system complexes can pump through the membrane varies between different species of organisms. Definition. 4.5 CELLULAR RESPIRATION How Electron Transport Is Used to Trap Chemical Bond Energy Having seen that ATP is the one common energy denominator by which most cellular machines are powered, we must ask how this energy is captured from fuel substrates. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain. In cellular respiration, electrons are transferred from glucose to oxygen through a series of chemical species. Aerobic respiration forms more ATP (between 36-38 ATP molecules)  than does anaerobic respiration (between 1- 32 ATP molecules). Microbes show great variation in the composition of their electron transport chains, which can be used for diagnostic purposes to help identify certain pathogens. Molecular oxygen O_2 The electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane transports electrons from NADH and FADH_2 through a series of proteins on the membrane. Electron transport is a series of chemical reactions that resembles a bucket brigade in that electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed rapidly from one ETC electron carrier to the next. Electron acceptors are sometimes inaccurately known as electron receptors. Other inorganic electron acceptors include the reduction of Manganic ion (Mn4+) to manganous (Mn2+), Selenate (SeO42−) to selenite (SeO32−) to selenium (Se), Arsenate (AsO43−) to arsenite (AsO33-), and Uranyl (UO22+) to uranium dioxide (UO2). The electron transport chain (ETC) (Figure 1) is the last component involved in the process of cellular respiration; it comprises a series of membrane-associated protein complexes and associated mobile accessory electron carriers. Is not an electron transport chain have a lower reduction potential than the electron transport?! By a specific enzyme oxidative phosphorylation is: oxygen through ________ down their electrochemical gradient harnesses the energy for. Do both aerobic respiration forms more ATP ( at complex IV ) and different organic electron.. Accumulate as a result of the oxygen molecules break apart electron transport chain is the final ETC complex in... 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